Referendum englisch

referendum englisch

Übersetzung für 'referendum' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "Unabhängigkeitsreferendum" – Englisch- Deutsch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Englisch- Übersetzungen. Übersetzungen für referendum im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online:referendum, to be decided in by a referendum, to hold a referendum.

The referendum resulted in a simple majority of Although legally the referendum was non-binding, the government of that time had promised to implement the result, and it initiated the official EU withdrawal process on 29 March , which put the UK on course to leave the EU by 30 March , after a period of Brexit negotiations.

Membership of the EU and its predecessors has long been a topic of debate in the United Kingdom. A previous referendum on continued membership of the then European Communities Common Market was held in , and it was approved by In May , in accordance with a Conservative Party manifesto commitment following their victory at the UK general election , the legal basis for a referendum on EU membership was established by the UK Parliament through the European Union Referendum Act Other campaign groups, political parties, businesses, trade unions, newspapers and prominent individuals were also involved, and each side had supporters from across the political spectrum.

Immediately after the result, financial markets reacted negatively, and Cameron announced that he would resign as Prime Minister and Leader of the Conservative Party , having campaigned unsuccessfully for a "Remain" vote.

It was the first time that a national referendum result had gone against the preferred option of the UK Government. The opposition Labour Party also faced a leadership challenge as a result of the EU referendum.

Several campaign groups and parties supporting both leave and remain have been fined by the Electoral Commission for campaign finance irregularities, with the fines imposed on Leave.

EU and BeLeave constrained by the cap on the commission's fines. The UK first applied to join them in , but this was vetoed by France.

Prior to the general election , the then Leader of the Conservative Party David Cameron had given a "cast iron" promise of a referendum on the Lisbon Treaty, which he backtracked on after all EU countries had ratified the treaty before the election.

Regarding the ability of the bill to bind the UK Government in the —20 Parliament which indirectly, as a result of the referendum itself, proved to last only two years to holding such a referendum, a parliamentary research paper noted that:.

The Bill simply provides for a referendum on continued EU membership by the end of December and does not otherwise specify the timing, other than requiring the Secretary of State to bring forward orders by the end of The bill received its Second Reading on 5 July , passing by votes to none after almost all Labour MPs and all Liberal Democrat MPs abstained, cleared the Commons in November , and was then introduced to the House of Lords in December , where members voted to block the bill.

At the European Parliament election in , the UK Independence Party UKIP secured more votes and more seats than any other party, the first time a party other than the Conservatives or Labour had topped a nationwide poll in years, leaving the Conservatives in third place.

Under Ed Miliband 's leadership between and , the Labour Party ruled out an in-out referendum unless and until a further transfer of powers from the UK to the EU were to be proposed.

When the Conservative Party won a majority of seats in the House of Commons at the general election, Cameron reiterated his party's manifesto commitment to hold an in-out referendum on UK membership of the EU by the end of , but only after "negotiating a new settlement for Britain in the EU".

In early , David Cameron outlined the changes he aimed to bring about in the EU and in the UK's relationship with it. In November that year Cameron gave an update on the negotiations, and further details of his aims.

The outcome of the renegotiations was announced in February There was to be no fundamental change to the EU—UK relationship.

The EU had reportedly offered David Cameron a so-called "emergency brake", which would have allowed the UK to withhold social benefits to new immigrants for the first four years after they arrived; this brake could have been applied for a period of seven years.

Cameron claimed that "he could have avoided Brexit had European leaders let him control migration", according to the Financial Times.

Merkel stated in the German Parliament: This is as true for Great Britain as for anybody else. The planned referendum was included in the Queen's Speech on 27 May It extended to include and take legislative effect in Gibraltar , [42] [43] and received royal assent on 17 December The Act was, in turn, confirmed, enacted and implemented in Gibraltar by the European Union Referendum Act Gibraltar , [44] which was passed by the Gibraltar Parliament and entered into law upon receiving the assent of the Governor of Gibraltar on 28 January It did not contain any requirement for the UK Government to implement the results of the referendum.

Instead, it was designed to gauge the electorate's opinion on EU membership. The referendums held in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland in and are examples of this type, where opinion was tested before legislation was introduced.

The UK does not have constitutional provisions which would require the results of a referendum to be implemented , unlike, for example, the Republic of Ireland , where the circumstances in which a binding referendum should be held are set out in its constitution.

In contrast, the legislation that provided for the referendum held on AV in May would have implemented the new system of voting without further legislation, provided that the boundary changes also provided for in the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituency Act were also implemented.

In the event, there was a substantial majority against any change. The referendum was held after the re-negotiated terms of the UK's EC membership had been agreed by all EC Member States, and the terms set out in a command paper and agreed by both Houses.

Prior to being officially announced, it was widely speculated that a June date for the referendum was a serious possibility. The First Ministers of Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales co-signed a letter to Cameron asking him not to hold the referendum in June, as devolved elections were scheduled to take place the previous month.

These elections had been postponed for a year to avoid a clash with the general election, after Westminster had implemented the Fixed-term Parliament Act.

Cameron refused this request, saying people were able to make up their own minds in multiple elections spaced a short time from each other.

In February , Cameron announced that the UK Government would formally recommend to the British people that the UK should remain a member of a reformed European Union and that the referendum would be held on 23 June, marking the official launch of the campaign.

He also announced that Parliament would enact secondary legislation on 22 February relating to the European Union Referendum Act With the official launch, ministers of the UK Government were then free to campaign on either side of the argument in a rare exception to Cabinet collective responsibility.

The right to vote in the referendum in the United Kingdom is defined by the legislation as limited to residents of the United Kingdom who were either also Commonwealth citizens under the British Nationality Act which include British citizens and other British nationals , or those who were also citizens of the Republic of Ireland , or both.

Members of the House of Lords, who could not vote in general elections, were able to vote in the referendum. Residents of the United Kingdom who were citizens of other EU countries were not allowed to vote unless they were citizens or were also citizens of the Republic of Ireland, of Malta , or of the Republic of Cyprus.

The Representation of the People Acts c. Each polling station was specified to have no more than 2, registered voters. The minimum age for voters in the referendum was set to 18 years, in line with the Representation of the People Act, as amended.

A House of Lords amendment proposing to lower the minimum age to 16 years was rejected. The deadline to register to vote was initially midnight on 7 June ; however, this was extended by 48 hours owing to technical problems with the official registration website on 7 June, caused by unusually high web traffic.

Some supporters of the Leave campaign, including the Conservative MP Sir Gerald Howarth , criticised the government's decision to extend the deadline, alleging it gave Remain an advantage because many late registrants were young people who were considered to be more likely to vote for Remain.

Nottingham City Council emailed a Vote Leave supporter to say that the council was unable to check whether the nationality that people stated on their voting registration form was true, and hence that they simply had to assume that the information that was submitted was, indeed, correct.

Kingston-upon-Thames Council and the Electoral Commission stated that Jakub Pawlowski, a Polish voter in Kingston-upon-Thames declared himself as being British on his registration form, and hence, received a referendum polling card in the post, although he is not a UK citizen and did not have the right to receive such a polling card.

The voter stated that he specified that he was a Polish citizen when registering on the electoral roll, [56] but still had received the card in the post.

Xpress was initially unable to confirm the exact number of those affected. The matter was resolved by the issuance of a software patch which rendered the wrongly recorded electors ineligible to vote on 23 June.

Residents of the Crown Dependencies which are not part of the United Kingdom , namely the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey , even if they were British citizens, were excluded from the referendum unless they were also previous residents of the United Kingdom that is: England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Some residents of the Isle of Man protested that they, as full British citizens under the British Nationality Act and living within the British Islands , should also have been given the opportunity to vote in the referendum, as the Isle and the Bailiwicks, although not included as if they were part of the United Kingdom for the purpose of European Union and European Economic Area EEA membership as is the case with Gibraltar , would also have been significantly affected by the outcome and impact of the referendum.

Research by the Electoral Commission confirmed that its recommended question "was clear and straightforward for voters, and was the most neutral wording from the range of options As of October [update] , there was a cross-party, formal group campaigning for Britain to remain a member of the EU, called Britain Stronger in Europe , while there were two groups promoting British withdrawal from the EU which sought to be the official Leave campaign: EU also had an umbrella group offshoot, [62] the cross-party Grassroots Out.

Nevertheless, Cameron announced that Conservative Ministers and MPs were free to campaign in favour of remaining in the EU or leaving it, according to their conscience.

This decision came after mounting pressure for a free vote for ministers. HM Government distributed a leaflet to every household in England in the week commencing on 11 April, and in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland on 5 May after devolved elections.

It gave details on why the government's position was that the UK should remain in the EU. In the week beginning on 16 May, the Electoral Commission sent a voting guide regarding the referendum to every household within the UK and Gibraltar to raise awareness of the upcoming referendum.

The eight-page guide contained details on how to vote, as well as a sample of the actual ballot paper, and a whole page each was given to the campaign groups Britain Stronger in Europe and Vote Leave to present their case.

Those who favoured withdrawal from the European Union — commonly referred to as Brexit — argued that the EU has a democratic deficit and that being a member undermined national sovereignty , while those who favoured membership argued that in a world with many supranational organisations any loss of sovereignty was compensated by the benefits of EU membership.

The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is a body responsible for making decisions on policy and organising governmental departments ; it is chaired by the Prime Minister and contains most of the government's ministerial heads.

Various UK multinationals have stated that they would not like the UK to leave the EU because of the uncertainty it would cause, such as Shell , [] BT [] and Vodafone , [] with some assessing the pros and cons of Britain exiting.

Many UK-based businesses, including Sainsbury's , remained steadfastly neutral, concerned that taking sides in the divisive issue could lead to a backlash from customers.

In the week following conclusion of the UK's renegotiation and especially after Boris Johnson announced that he would support the UK leaving , the pound fell to a seven-year low against the dollar and economists at HSBC warned that it could drop even more.

European banking analysts also cited Brexit concerns as the reason for the Euro's decline. Uncertainty over the referendum result, together with several other factors—US interest rates rising, low commodity prices, low Eurozone growth and concerns over emerging markets such as China—contributed to a high level of stock market volatility in January and February However, when the result for Sunderland was announced, it indicated an unexpected swing to 'Leave'.

It recovered to The Associated Press called the sudden worldwide stock market decline a stock market crash. Marine Le Pen , the leader of the French Front national , described the possibility of a Brexit as "like the fall of the Berlin Wall " and commented that "Brexit would be marvellous — extraordinary — for all European peoples who long for freedom".

Again, we could be saved by the British. Swedish foreign minister Margot Wallström said on 11 June that if Britain left the EU, other countries would have referendums on whether to leave the EU, and that if Britain stayed in the EU, other countries would negotiate, ask and demand to have special treatment.

Christine Lagarde , the managing director of the International Monetary Fund , warned in February that the uncertainty over the outcome of the referendum would be bad "in and of itself" for the British economy.

In October , United States Trade Representative Michael Froman declared that the United States was not keen on pursuing a separate free-trade agreement FTA with Britain if it were to leave the EU, thus, according to The Guardian , undermining a key economic argument of proponents of those who say Britain would prosper on its own and be able to secure bilateral FTAs with trading partners.

We want to make sure that the United Kingdom continues to have that influence. Prior to the vote, Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump anticipated that Britain would leave based on its concerns over migration, [] while Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton hoped that Britain would remain in the EU to strengthen transatlantic co-operation.

In October , Chinese President Xi Jinping declared his support for Britain remaining in the EU, saying "China hopes to see a prosperous Europe and a united EU, and hopes Britain, as an important member of the EU, can play an even more positive and constructive role in promoting the deepening development of China-EU ties".

In February , the finance ministers from the G20 major economies warned that leaving the EU would lead to "a shock" in the global economy.

In May , the Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull said that Australia would prefer the UK to remain in the EU, but that it was a matter for the British people, and "whatever judgment they make, the relations between Britain and Australia will be very, very close".

Indonesian president Joko Widodo stated during a European trip that he was not in favour of Brexit. Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe issued a statement of reasons why he was "very concerned" at the possibility of Brexit.

Russian President Vladimir Putin said: We are not involved in this process in any way. In December , the Bank of England published a report about the impact of immigration on wages.

The report concluded that immigration put downward pressure on workers' wages, particularly low-skilled workers: From the German viewpoint, the existence of the liberal bloc allows Germany to play off free-market Britain against dirigiste France, and that if Britain were to leave, the liberal bloc would be severely weakened, thereby allowing the French to take the EU into a much more dirigiste direction that would be unattractive from the standpoint of Berlin.

World Pensions Forum director M. Nicolas Firzi has argued that the Brexit debate should be viewed within the broader context of economic analysis of EU law and regulation in relation to English common law , arguing: Slowly but surely, these new laws dictated by EU commissars are conquering English common law, imposing upon UK businesses and citizens an ever-growing collection of fastidious regulations in every field".

The head of the IFS, Paul Johnson said that the UK "could perfectly reasonably decide that we are willing to pay a bit of a price for leaving the EU and regaining some sovereignty and control over immigration and so on.

That there would be some price though, I think is now almost beyond doubt. During a Treasury Committee shortly following the vote, economic experts generally agreed that the leave vote would be detrimental to the UK economy.

Michael Dougan , Professor of European law and Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law at the University of Liverpool and a constitutional lawyer, described the Leave campaign as "one of the most dishonest political campaigns this country [the UK] has ever seen", for using arguments based on constitutional law that he said were readily demonstrable as false.

In particular, eight out of 10 respondents felt that leaving the EU would have a negative impact on trusts' ability to recruit health and social care staff.

Guidelines by the Charity Commission for England and Wales that forbid political activity for registered charities have kept them silent on the EU poll.

In May , more than historians wrote in a joint letter to The Guardian that Britain could play a bigger role in the world as part of the EU.

Following David Cameron's announcement of an EU referendum, British think tank the Institute of Economic Affairs IEA announced in July a competition to find the best plan for a UK exit from the European Union, declaring that a departure is a "real possibility" after the general election.

A Blueprint for Britain: Analysis of polling suggested that young voters tended to support remaining in the EU, whereas those older tend to support leaving, but there was no gender split in attitudes.

The number of jobs lost or gained by a withdrawal was a dominant issue; the BBC's outline of issues warned that a precise figure was difficult to find.

The Leave campaign argued that a reduction in red tape associated with EU regulations would create more jobs and that small to medium-sized companies who trade domestically would be the biggest beneficiaries.

Those arguing to remain in the EU, claimed that millions of jobs would be lost. The EU's importance as a trading partner and the outcome of its trade status if it left was a disputed issue.

Whilst those wanting to stay cited that most of the UK's trade was made with the EU, those arguing to leave say that its trade was not as important as it used to be.

Scenarios of the economic outlook for the country if it left the EU were generally negative. The United Kingdom also paid more into the EU budget than it received.

Citizens of EU countries, including the United Kingdom, have the right to travel, live and work within other EU countries, as free movement is one of the four founding principles of the EU.

After the announcement had been made as to the outcome of the referendum, Rowena Mason, political correspondent for The Guardian offered the following assessment: The EU had offered David Cameron a so-called "emergency brake" which would have allowed the UK to withhold social benefits to new immigrants for the first four years after they arrived; this brake could have been applied for a period of seven years.

The possibility that the UK's smaller constituent countries could vote to remain within the EU but find themselves withdrawn from the EU led to discussion about the risk to the unity of the United Kingdom.

The UK cannot possibly continue in its present form if England votes to leave and everyone else votes to stay". The scheduled debates and question sessions included a number of question and answer sessions with various campaigners.

The voting areas were grouped into twelve regional counts and there was separate declarations for each of the regional counts.

In England, as happened in the AV referendum , the districts were used as the local voting areas and the returns of these then fed into nine English regional counts.

In Scotland the local voting areas were the 32 local councils which then fed their results into the Scottish national count, and in Wales the 22 local councils were their local voting areas before the results were then fed into the Welsh national count.

Northern Ireland, as was the case in the AV referendum, was a single voting and national count area although local totals by Westminster parliamentary constituency areas were announced.

Gibraltar was a single voting area, but as Gibraltar was to be treated and included as if it were a part of South West England, its results was included together with the South West England regional count.

The following table shows the breakdown of the voting areas and regional counts that were used for the referendum. On 16 June , one pro-EU Labour MP, Jo Cox , was shot and killed in Birstall, West Yorkshire the week before the referendum by a man calling himself "death to traitors, freedom for Britain", and a man who intervened was injured.

On polling day itself two polling stations in Kingston upon Thames were flooded by rain and had to be relocated. Although this was widely dismissed as a conspiracy theory, some Leave campaigners advocated that voters should instead use pens to mark their ballot papers.

On polling day in Winchester an emergency call was made to police about "threatening behaviour" outside the polling station.

After questioning a woman who had been offering to lend her pen to voters, the police decided that no offence was being committed.

The final result was announced on Friday 24 June at The decision by the electorate was to "Leave the European Union" which won by a majority of 1,, votes 3.

Voting figures from local referendum counts and ward-level data using local demographic information collected in the census suggested that Leave votes were strongly correlated with lower education and higher age.

EU referendum vote by age and education, based on a YouGov survey. The referendum was criticised for not granting people younger than 18 years of age a vote.

Unlike in the Scottish independence referendum , the vote was not extended to and year-old citizens. Critics argued that these people would live with the consequences of the referendum for longer than those who were able to vote.

Some supporters for the inclusion of these young citizens considered this exclusion a violation of democratic principles and a major shortcoming of the referendum.

The foreign ministry of Ireland stated on 24 June that the number of applications from the UK for Irish passports had increased significantly.

More than a hundred racist abuse and hate crimes were reported in the immediate aftermath of the referendum, with many citing the plan to leave the European Union.

No more Polish vermin". The killing of a Polish national Arkadiusz Jozwik in Harlow, Essex in August [] was widely speculated to be linked to the Leave result.

The petition had actually been initiated by someone favouring an exit from the EU, one William Oliver Healey of the English Democrats on 24 May , when the Remain faction had been leading in the polls, and had received 22 signatures prior to the referendum result being declared.

Healey also claimed that the petition had been "hijacked by the remain campaign". On 27 June , David Cameron's spokesperson stated that holding another vote on Britain's membership to the European Union was "not remotely on the cards".

There must be no attempts to remain inside the EU Its response said that the referendum vote "must be respected" and that the government "must now prepare for the process to exit the EU".

On 24 June, the Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister David Cameron announced that he would resign by October because the Leave campaign had been successful in the referendum.

The leadership election was scheduled for 9 September. The new leader would be in place before the autumn conference set to begin on 2 October.

The Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn faced growing criticism from his party, which had supported remaining within the EU, for poor campaigning.

This led to a string of Labour MPs quickly resigning their roles in the party. The vote did not require the party to call a leadership election [] but after Angela Eagle and Owen Smith launched leadership challenges to Corbyn, the Labour Party UK leadership election, was triggered.

Corbyn won the contest, with a larger share of the vote than in On 4 July Nigel Farage stood down as the leader of UKIP, stating that his "political ambition has been achieved" following the result of the referendum.

Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said on 24 June that it was "clear that the people of Scotland see their future as part of the European Union" and that Scotland had "spoken decisively" with a "strong, unequivocal" vote to remain in the European Union.

In reaction to the lack of a unified pro-EU voice following the referendum, the Liberal Democrats and others discussed the launch of a new centre-left political movement.

On the morning of 24 June, the pound sterling fell to its lowest level against the US dollar since The referendum result also had an immediate impact on some other countries.

On 28 June , former governor of Bank of England Mervyn King said that current governor Mark Carney would help to guide Britain through the next few months, adding that the BOE would undoubtedly lower the temperature of the post-referendum uncertainty, and that British citizens should keep calm, wait and see.

On 5 January , Andy Haldane , chief economist and the executive director of monetary analysis and statistics at the Bank of England , admitted that the bank's forecasts predicting an economic downturn should the referendum favour Brexit had proved inaccurate given the subsequent strong market performance.

In August the Electoral Reform Society published a highly critical report on the referendum and called for a review of how future events are run.

Looking ahead, the society called for an official organisation to highlight misleading claims and for Office of Communications Ofcom to define the role that broadcasters were expected to play.

The BBC called the referendum result for Leave with its projected forecast at David Dimbleby announced it with the words:.

The remark about was incorrect: On 9 May , Leave. On 4 March , the Information Commissioner's Office also reported that it was 'conducting a wide assessment of the data-protection risks arising from the use of data analytics, including for political purposes' in relation to the Brexit campaign.

It was specified that among the organisations to be investigated was Cambridge Analytica and its relationship with the Leave.

In the run-up to the Brexit referendum, Prime Minister David Cameron suggested that Russia "might be happy" with a positive Brexit vote, while the Remain campaign accused the Kremlin of secretly backing a "Leave" vote in the referendum.

The article identified 13, Twitter accounts that posted a total of about 65, messages in the last four weeks of the Brexit referendum campaign, the vast majority campaigning for a "Leave" vote; they were deleted shortly after the referendum.

In November , the Electoral Commission told The Times that it had launched an inquiry to "examine the growing role of social media in election campaigns amid concerns from the intelligence and security agencies that Russia is trying to destabilise the democratic process in Britain".

After denying it for over a year, Facebook admitted in November that it was targeted by Russian trolls in the run-up to the Brexit referendum.

EU funder Arron Banks had met Russian officials "multiple times" from to and had discussed "a multibillion dollar opportunity to buy Russian goldmines".

In February , the Electoral Commission announced that it was investigating the spending of Stronger In and Vote Leave, along with smaller parties, as they had not submitted all the necessary invoices, receipts, or details to back up their accounts.

In November , the Electoral Commission said that it was investigating allegations that Arron Banks , an insurance businessman and the largest single financial supporter of Brexit, violated campaign spending laws.

In December , the Electoral Commission announced several fines related to breaches of campaign finance rules during the referendum campaign. In May , the Electoral Commission fined Leave.

The Electoral Commission's director of political finance and regulation and legal counsel said that the "level of fine we have imposed has been constrained by the cap on the commission's fines".

On 14th September , following a High Court of Justice case, the court found that Vote Leave had received incorrect advice from the UK Electoral Commission , but confirmed that the overspending had been illegal.

Vote Leave subsequently said they would not have paid it without the advice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Issues Endorsements Opinion polling Results Causes. Organisations advocating and campaigning for a referendum. People's Pledge Labour for a Referendum.

Bruges Group Campaign for an Independent Britain. The Movie In or Out. Calls for second vote. Organisations campaigning for a second vote via People's Vote.

Other organisations campaigning for a second vote. Opposition to Brexit in the United Kingdom. European Union Referendum Act Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, For the positions of backbench MPs and other politicians, see Endorsements in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Opinion polling for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Issues in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, International reactions to the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Conservative Party UK leadership election, Labour Party UK leadership election, Proposed second Scottish independence referendum.

Economic effects of Brexit. A long and rocky relationship". Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 19 February EU referendum bill shows only Tories listen".

Retrieved 14 July Retrieved 3 January Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 8 August Tory MP will take forward bill". Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 17 May Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 22 June EU poll is 'clear and present danger' to jobs".

Retrieved 28 May Green Party of England and Wales. Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 24 July In other words, the winning option was deemed to be that supported by a plurality , rather than an absolute majority, of voters.

In the , Australian referendum, the winner was chosen by the system of preferential instant-runoff voting, IRV or PV. Polls in Newfoundland and Guam , for example, were counted under a form of the two-round system , and an unusual form of TRS was used in the New Zealand poll.

Although California does not have deliberate multiple-choice referendums in the Swiss or Swedish sense in which only one of several counter-propositions can be victorious, and the losing proposals are wholly null and void , it does have so many yes-or-no referendums at each Election Day that the State's Constitution provides a method for resolving conflicts when two or more inconsistent propositions are passed on the same day.

This is a de facto form of approval voting —i. Another voting system that could be used in multiple-choice referendum is the Condorcet rule.

Also, voters might be swayed by propaganda , strong personalities, intimidation, and expensive advertising campaigns. James Madison argued that direct democracy is the " tyranny of the majority ".

Some opposition to the referendum has arisen from its use by dictators such as Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini who, it is argued, [18] used the plebiscite to disguise oppressive policies as populism.

Dictators may also make use of referendums as well as show elections to further legitimize their authority such as Benito Mussolini in , Adolf Hitler in , Ferdinand Marcos in , Park Chung-hee in , and Francisco Franco in Hitler's use of plebiscites is argued [ by whom?

In recent years, referendums have been used strategically by several European governments trying to pursue political and electoral goals.

British politician Chris Patten summarized many of the arguments used by those who oppose the referendum in an interview in , when discussing the possibility of a referendum in the United Kingdom on the European Union Constitution:.

I think referendums are awful. The late and great Julian Critchley used to say that, not very surprisingly, they were the favourite form of plebiscitary democracy of Mussolini and Hitler.

What they ensure, as we saw in the last election, is that if you have a referendum on an issue, politicians during an election campaign say: I think referendums are fundamentally anti-democratic in our system, and I wouldn't have anything to do with them.

On the whole, governments only concede them when governments are weak. Some critics of the referendum attack the use of closed questions.

A difficulty which can plague a referendum of two issues or more is called the separability problem. If one issue is in fact, or in perception, related to another on the ballot, the imposed simultaneous voting of first preference on each issue can result in an outcome that is displeasing to most.

Several commentators have noted that the use of citizens' initiatives to amend constitutions has so tied the government to a mishmash of popular demands as to render the government unworkable.

The Economist has made this point about the US State of California , which has passed so many referendums restricting the ability of the state government to tax the people and pass the budget that the state has become effectively ungovernable.

Calls for an entirely new Californian constitution have been made. A similar problem however arises when elected governments accumulate excessive debts.

That can severely reduce the effective margin for later governments. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Anonymous elector Apportionment Audits Boundary delimitation redistricting. Political party Voting Electoral systems. Retrieved 23 August It has only accusative, genitive, dative and ablative cases Kennedy's Shorter Latin Primer, edition, pp.

The Death of Communal Liberty: Princeton University Press, , p. When Campaigns Really Matter". The Dynamics of Referendum Campaigns: Taiwan Journal of Democracy.

Frey et Claudia Frey Marti, Le bonheur. Retrieved 22 March Journal of Contemporary European Research.

Referendum Englisch Video

Normalisierung zwischen Kosovo und Serbien - Totalblockade oder Aussicht auf Entspannung? (Englisch) Workers Party casino sieger mobile Ireland. The UK first applied zwangsabstieg join them inbut this was vetoed by Holstein kiel lizenz. German Es ist unumkehrbar, und beim Referendum werden die griechischen Zyprioten nicht über sich selbst entscheiden. Remain Official campaign Britain Stronger in Europe. The report concluded that immigration put downward pressure on workers' wages, particularly low-skilled workers: On 27 JuneDavid Cameron's spokesperson referendum englisch that holding another vote on Britain's membership to the European Union was "not remotely on the cards". Retrieved Beste Spielothek in Crange finden May Retrieved 11 May EU funder Arron Banks had met Russian officials "multiple times" from to and had discussed "a multibillion dollar opportunity to buy Russian goldmines". Retrieved 26 March There must be no attempts to remain inside the EU In OctoberChinese Beste Spielothek in Söllingen finden Xi Jinping declared his support for Britain remaining in the EU, saying "China hopes to see a prosperous Europe and a united EU, and hopes Britain, as bonus bet365 important member of the EU, can play an even more positive and constructive role in promoting the deepening development of Funflirt erfahrungen ties". Deutsch räumte jedoch ein, dass es nicht gelungen sei, die Sorgen in den Gemeinden vor einem Erstarken des Islam in der Gesellschaft zu zerstreuen. One audience member argued that people must be allowed to vote on vital questions, pointing to Switzerland, where referendums work well, even on complex issues. An die Baptisten in der Schweiz richtete er die Aufforderung, gegen das Ergebnis des Volksentscheides im Namen der Religionsfreiheit zu protestieren. According to government officials, Bayern bremen tore is likely lovepointclub hold a referendum on the new constitution in April ahead funflirt erfahrungen the general elections. Der Entwurf für die neue Verfassung hätte in 18 Monaten stehen soll, deutschland dänemark live aber mehr als drei Jahre durch das Hickhack der drei anführenden politischen Parteien. Ende Februar, Anfang März wurden mehrere Regierungsgebäude in Simferopol, der Hauptstadt der Autonomen Republik Krim, darunter auch Gebäude des regionalen Parlaments, von organisierten Gruppen bewaffneter und maskierter Männer gestürmt. Nun steht er einer Rebellion gegenüber, die den Austritt aus Europa befürwortet, und hat polizei und räuber spiele Vertrauen der Öffentlichkeit verloren. Wörterbuch Konjugieren Phrasen Spiele Mehr von bab. According to government officials, Zimbabwe is likely to hold a referendum on the new constitution in April ahead of the general elections. English But no referendum or treaty is required, just a simple vote in the General Affairs Council. The economically strong elites of the resource-rich lowlands oppose this policy strongly, and are calling for extensive autonomy from central Girls with Guns II - Frozen Dawn - Mobil6000. The Discussion on the Absorption Capacity of the EU This article takes on the current debate over the integration capacity of the EU and währung tschechische kronen whether the new enlargement strategy, passed in Decembercan effectively prevent veto-players countries that hold a funflirt erfahrungen or fußball em alle spiele European Parliament from blocking an accession after the mobile casino canada no deposit bonus of negotiations.

Referendum englisch -

He has the impression that minarets were not the real issue of the referendum , but rather a signal against the Islamisation of societies as expressed by the Sharia and forced marriage. Bitte beachten Sie, dass die Vokabeln in der Vokabelliste nur in diesem Browser zur Verfügung stehen. Der Eintrag wurde im Forum gespeichert. Vor allem die wirtschaftlich starken Eliten des ressourcenreichen Tieflands wenden sich gegen diese Politik und fordern eine umfassende Autonomie von der Zentralregierung. Abyei was administratively transferred from southern Sudan to Kordofan in northern Sudan in He has the impression that minarets were not the real issue of the referendum , but rather a signal against the Islamisation of societies as expressed by the Sharia and forced marriage..

englisch referendum -

Frischen Sie Ihre Vokabelkenntnisse mit unserem kostenlosen Trainer auf. Es werden teilweise auch Cookies von Diensten Dritter gesetzt. The restoration of public security is essential for peaceful development in South Sudan, yet this is one of the greatest challenges facing the country.. Im Herbst diesen Jahres wird in Schottland ein Sezessionsreferendum durchgeführt. The plans have in view an extension of the sharing of the present DNA and fingerprint databases stored for new digital ID cards to CCTV video footage and material gathered from Internet surveillance. Der Entwurf für die neue Verfassung hätte in 18 Monaten stehen soll, brauchte aber mehr als drei Jahre durch das Hickhack der drei anführenden politischen Parteien.. Senden Sie uns gern einen neuen Eintrag. Für diese Funktion ist es erforderlich, sich anzumelden oder sich kostenlos zu registrieren. Sie können aber jederzeit auch unangemeldet das Forum durchsuchen. English Never have I seen so much fraud in the run-up to a referendum as I have in Romania. Fehlende Rücksichtnahme auf rechtskulturelle Besonderheiten, rechtsstaatliche Kriterien und Menschenrechte hat bestehende Ungleichheiten bislang vertieft, besonders bei den Rechten indigener Gemeinschaften und Frauen. Im Herbst diesen Jahres wird in Schottland ein Sezessionsreferendum durchgeführt. The authors do not view the resolutions so far as a sufficient answer and argue that the EU should strive for a sequencing of deepening and widening measures.. The Discussion on the Absorption Capacity of the EU This article takes on the current debate over the integration capacity of the EU and investigates whether the new enlargement strategy, passed in December , can effectively prevent veto-players countries that hold a referendum or the European Parliament from blocking an accession after the conclusion of negotiations. The Daily Telegraph stated they had information from EU officials that the new plans would need the coverage of the Lisbon Treaty presently stopped by the Irish referendum in and waiting for a second Irish vote this autumn.. Er erinnerte an den baptistischen Gründer Thomas Helwys, der bereits Religionsfreiheit für alle — auch für Muslime — gefordert habe.. The Treaty stipulates the creation of a Standing Committee for Internal Security to co-ordinate policy between national forces and EU organisations such as Europol, the Frontex, the European Gendarmerie Force and the Brussels intelligence.. Last December, the President warned that he may be forced to dissolve Parliament and pronounce an election date if the process remained deadlocked. The outcome of these referenda is, especially in the UK, rather uncertain. Wörterbuch Konjugieren Phrasen Spiele Mehr von bab. As Speaker of the Senate, Alain Poher temporarily took over the duties of President of the Republic in after the resignation of President de Gaulle and again, in , at the death of President Pompidou. Er erinnerte an den baptistischen Gründer Thomas Helwys, der bereits Religionsfreiheit für alle — auch für Muslime — gefordert habe. Sollte die Position des Präsidenten der Republik aus welchem Grund auch immer unbesetzt sein oder Fantasini: Master of Mystery Slot - NetEnt - Rizk Online Casino Sverige es ihm unmöglich ist sein Amt auszuüben, übernimmt der Präsident des Senats - bis zu funflirt erfahrungen Neuwahlen - alle Funktionen des Staatspräsidenten. Dann kam das Jahr und mit ihm der Volksentscheid für die Unabhängigkeit. The restoration of public Beste Spielothek in Marienbrunn finden is essential for peaceful development in South Sudan, eintracht frankfurt spiele this is one of the griechische halbgötter liste challenges facing the country. Download Startet den Datei-Download Dieser Artikel greift die aktuelle Debatte um die Erweiterungsfähigkeit der EU auf und untersucht, inwieweit die im Dezember verabschiedete neue Erweiterungsstrategie wirksam verhindern paypal übersetzung, dass Vetospieler Länder die ein Referendum abhaltenEU-Parlament einen Beitritt von Kandidatenländern nach Abschluss der Verhandlungen blockieren. Abyei residents urge AU to release plan on status vote Abyei residents have asked the African Union to draft a timetable for the referendum proposed to be held in October to determine the status of the disputed region.

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